The NPCC uses ZOPP for developing community-based projects. ZOPP is the
acronym of the German term ZIEL ORENTIERTE PROJECT PLANNING which
translates to Goal Oriented Project Planning. In the 1960’s it was
called the “Logical Framework Approach(LFA)” by the US Agent for
International Development (USAID).
ZOPP is a simple method of
strategic planning involving a group of senior executives including a
cross-functional team from each department with the NPCC acting as a
moderator. ZOPP workshops last from 1 day to 2 weeks, with a typical
session lasting 1 week. Participants are selected to represent all
interest groups, project technical staff as well as high-level
authorities, and community leaders. A basic premise is that the main
interest groups must be represented from all levels, particularly top
A typical session is led by a moderator
with participants sitting facing large sheets of paper fixed on panels,
walls, etc. As participants go through the exercises, the results are
affixed to the sheets with pins to allow adjustment and glued
permanently at the end of each day. This information is typed at the end
of each day and becomes a part of the workshop record.
has two phases: analysis and project planning. The analysis phase has 4
sub-steps, with the identification of ‘real’ problems as the driver for
- Participation analysis: an overview of
persons, groups, organizations connected to a project and their
interests, motives, attitudes and implications for project planning.
This is done in a chart form.
- Problems analysis: major
problems grouped into a problem-tree with cause and effect and
identification of the core problem. The problems are noted on cards -
one to a card - and organized by smaller groups.
analysis: a restatement of the problems into realistically achievable
goals; this is often done by rewriting the problems into outcomes, often
by reversing the cards.
- Alternatives analysis:
identification of objectives and assessment of alternatives according to
resources, probability of achieving objectives, political feasibility,
cost-benefit ratio, social risks, time horizon, sustainability, and
others factors as decided by group. Prepared on charts.
project planning phase has as its outcome the Project Planning Matrix
(PPM), sometimes called the project planning framework. The PPM is a
one-page summary of why the project is carried out, what the project is
expected to achieve, how the project is going to achieve these results,
which factors are crucial for the success of the project, how can
success be measured, where data is required to assess project success,
and what the project will cost. All of this information is combined in 4
x 4 matrix.
The ZOPP has been cited for its rigidity and rigor,
and the need for all participants to actively take part in order for it